Hecate’s History and origin is a very complex one for even though Hecate is considered to be a powerful Goddess and a Goddess for the people; there is not much written information about Her as She does not have much involvement in mythology nor does She have much interaction with other Deities. Only a few deities are well documented in literature and Hecate is one of the many who are largely absent, especially before the fourth century. Also....one has to bear in mind that there is only so much factual information out there from paintings, plates, the Hymns, etc., regarding the Goddess Hecate and the rest of the written material is merely speculation and should be taken as such. For instance, the mention that Hecate had many children. There is only one factual evidence in which Hecate may have had one child, Skylla, and it was not from Hermes but from Porkys. I have read some sources state that Hecate had many children and some with Hermes which is mere speculation with no evidence. In fact, the only association Hecate has with Hermes are their roles as chthonic Deities and/or guardians of the common people. For those reasons above, I am careful in what I believe to be information on Hecate or any other Deity for that matter and I tend to take more to heart on what scholars have to write than anything else.. Anyone can write a book but the difference is between whether it is factual or mere speculation on the author's part.
Hecate is an ancient Goddess from an earlier pre-Greek strata of myth. The Greeks found Her difficult to fit into their scheme of Gods. Some came to see Her as a daughter of the Titans, Perses and Asteria and thus cousin to Artemis. Others saw Her as an even more primal Goddess, making Her a daughter of Erebus and Nyx. What is so confusing here is if Hecate was seen as a daughter of minor parents such as Perses and Asteria, why would Zeus "give" Her so much power and ruler of Earth, Heaven and the Underworld, and He favored Her above all.
Two major works of the Archaic period, the Theogony of Hesiod and the Homeric Hymn to Demeter contain the most significant references to Hecate. There are two other known references to Hecate in Archaic literature. Both are unfortunately very brief such as Hecate having some connection with Iphigeneia, and is also the mother of Skylla by Porkys (a minor Sea God.) With references to Iphigeneia, please see Hecate and Artemis which is discussed a little later.
Hesiod’s Theogony is probably the oldest, surviving major Greek work of literature. It dates to the late eighth or early seventh century which is slightly earlier than the current dating of Homer’s work. In Hesiod’s poem, roughly in the midpoint of the poem, is material describing the birth, history, powers and spheres of influence of Hecate. This passage–"hymn" to Hecate–is the longest section in the entire poem pertaining to an individual deity other than Zeus. It also involves humans more than any other section. She as described as follows:
411: She is the child of Titans Asteria and Perses (and thus a cousin of Artemis and Apollo);
411-15: She is honoured by Zeus above all others, and has been granted shares by him in the Sky, Earth, and Sea (Underworld to Homer)....an honor to which Hecate already had!
416-18: she is invoked by humans in every sacrifice;
418-20: she grants (or withholds) much favor and success to humans who call upon Her;
421-28: she keeps the rights that she held among the Titans, as an only child and direct descendant of Gaia, Ouranos and Okeanos "(Earth," "Sky" and "Sea");
429-47: she blesses six specific groups of mortals: leaders, warriors, athletes, cavalrymen, fisherman.
448-49: she is honoured by all the deities although She is an only child;
450-52: she is kourotrophos ("nurse") to all living things.
What is strange about the description of Hecate here is there is no chthonic, lunar or, her magical practices, nor any mention of torches, or her favorite place such as the crossroads, as if it was intentionally "whitewashed" of what was assumed to be the true, unsavoury nature of Hecate, as if Hesiod wished to keep the darker side hidden.
In the Pre-Olympian Deities, in tales concerning the beginning of things, three great Goddesses play the part of Mother of the World: the Sea-Goddess Tethys, the Goddess Night ( whom Zeus stood in sacred awe of) and Mother Earth. They constitute a trinity. All through mythology, one comes across three Goddesses. What is more, they do not merely form accidental groups of three–usually a group of three sisters–but actually are real trinities, sometimes almost forming a single Threefold Goddess. It might be because in earlier times, the calendar year was by the Moon. The lunar month was divided into three parts, and our moon had three aspects: as the waxing, the full and waning sign of a divine presence in the sky.
Now, according to Hesiod, the Great Goddess Gaia gave birth to 12 Titans and Titanesses, three brothers took their own sisters to wife–Theia bore to her husband, Hyperion, Helois, the Sun, Selene, the Moon and Eos, Dawn. Phoebe (which is another name for Moon) bore to Koios two daughters: the Goddess Leto, (mother of Artemis and Apollo) , and Asteria, (star Goddess) who bore Hecate to Perses/Persios (the son of Eurybia "Goddess of wide force, " who some say was a daughter to Gaia. Eurybia is the sister to Phorkys who Hecate who later bears the female Sea-Monster Skylla). Rhea married Krones, to whom she bore three daughters and three sons, the Great Goddess Hestia, Demeter and Hera and the great Gods Hades, Poseidon and Zeus. So, according to Hesiod, Hecate is therefore the cousin of Apollo and Artemis. Hecate is mostly seen carrying two torches, which to some, the torches represent the Moon. Hecate was an only child. In this respect, Hecate resembles Persephone, the Goddess of the Underworld. For the rest, She was an almighty threefold Goddess. Zeus revered her above all others and let her have her share of the earth, the sea and the starry sky; or rather he did not deprive her of this threefold honor, which she previously enjoyed under the earlier Gods, the Titans. Tales are told of Hecate’s love affairs with the Gods of the sea, and most particularly with Triton. When Hecate was not walking on the highways, she dwelt in her cave which to many, consider that to represent the Underworld.
It has been speculated by one author that Hecate was not a Moon Goddess before the Roman period. He says that torches alone does not make Her a Moon Goddess. However, Hecate’s grandmother is Phoebe, the Moon. Hecate’s father, Peres, is an old Sun-God, and when there is a Sun God, there is always mention of a Moon Goddess, and so Hecate’s ancestry therefore reflects her heritage as an ancient Moon Goddess. Plus a few passages of Sophokles evokes a very clear picture of Hecate that Her torches seem to pair her specifically with Helios, the Sun God. Aristophanes speaks of Hecate’s torches showing the way at night: ("and you, oh daughter of Zeus, holding up two flaming torches...show the way...so that I may search for the thief"). (Many believe that Hecate is not the daughter of Zeus as Hecate is Pre-Greek. Also there is a picture of Hecate holding the Sun God Zeus when he was a small child.) But this could indicate a line between Her torches and moonlight. However, somewhat more substantial evidence is found by considering together two unrelated passages of Bacchylides. Fragment 1B reads ("Hecate, torch bearing holy daughter of great-bosomed Night...") The prooemium of Ode 7 is to an unnamed daughter of Nux (Night) as benefactor of footracers at the Olympaid of 452: this role recalls Hecate helping athletes in the Theogony. Now the four-year Olympic cycle was actually measured as one half of a "great year" of 100 months (i.e., 100 lunar cycles) and the final ceremonies were held at Full Moon. Furthermore the Greek word of 100 is hekaton, which bears a considerable resemblance to Hecate’s name. If Hecate is the unnamed Goddess referred to in the "ode", this timing might therefore reflect a very old lunar aspect of Her.
Hecate stood before the doors of most houses under the name of Prothyraia, the Goddess who helped women in childbed. Some authors felt to describe how and with what purposes Hecate was evoked by women would take people more into the field of Witchcraft, and their main purpose of their research was confined to Hecate’s origins as close as possible to Mythology and not Witchcraft and women's ways. She had names such as "the strong, Threefold One, or the Distant One or Remote One. The wife of the sun God Helios was named Perse or Perseis, which is also one of the names of the Moon Goddess Hecate and doubtless represented the Underworld aspect of the "widely shining" Goddess. It is interesting, that the name of the Queen of the Underworld, Persephone, can be taken to be a longer, perhaps even a more ceremonious form of Perse, Perseis, Perses, Perseus and Persaios–all names of Hecate and her associates–and are probably used from pre-Greek times as a name of the Queen of the Underworld. Persephone is referred to Kore, the Maiden, when she returns to her Mother, Demeter, in the Spring and once again, she is known as Persephone when she returns to the Underworld. So, there are many aspects which connect Hecate to Persephone as there are many speculations if Persephone and Hecate are one and the same. Many speculate that the myth of Persephone journeying to the Underworld happened before the myth of the abduction by Hades but instead, Persephone journeyed to the land of the Underworld for teachings from Hecate or even that She then became Hecate.
It is also noted that at one time Hecate was seen as young and later she was a Mother. She was never portrayed as the Crone, and you have to wonder why. Most ancient drawings, whether they are on plates, bowls, jars, etc., one never sees an elderly lady portrayed. It is either Maiden or Mother or both but never an image of an old wrinkled woman. But this might be because no one lived a very long life. Or, perhaps, as in today’s society, the elderly was not respected and looked upon as if they were not there, as if they did not exist and that life belonged to the young and fertile. Perhaps during the Matriarchal times, the Crone was recognized for Her wisdom and She was respected until the warring Solar Gods with their sexual prowlness came and took the powers away from the Goddess, and the Crone was cast away to die in some hidden cave.
Homer’s Hymn to Demeter, the earliest account of the abduction of Persephone by Hades, dates to the late seventh or early sixth century. Although the roles of Hecate in the hymn are quite minor, the work presents a noteworthy relationship between Hecate, Demeter and Persephone. However, Hecate’s appearances are very brief and sudden. Some scholars feel once again, as in Hesoid’s Hymn, something is missing. Perhaps Hecate’s role in the hymn was reduced from a more active one in which She was Persephone’s companion from the outset. Or, more emphasis was put on Demeter, thereby leaving Hecate as secondary, which contradicts what other scholars have said; i.e., that "Hecate was secondary to none." Perhaps it was a desire to purge the Hymn of a figure that had acquired an undesirable reputation. It is even possible that the role in the Mysteries (Eleusis) are part of the arreton ("secret things") and thus unmentionable by initiates.
It is noteworthy to mention that in Homer’s Hymn to Demeter is the connection between Hecate and Helios. The two are paired in later literature through Medeia. The view, common in Roman times, that Hecate was a Moon-Goddess and thus logically paired with Helios, the Sun-God. In the Hymn, both begin as observers of the event: Hecate hears it (the Moon which has not yet risen), Helios the sun sees it. On the one hand, Hecate is shown as very supportive of the two Goddesses: She brings news to Demeter, accompanies her when she seeks more information from Helios and repeatedly embraces Persephone upon her return. Helios, on the other hand shows little compassion whatsoever. The connection between Hecate and Helios is odd, as their actions are contrasting reactions. If a significant link existed between the two at the time, based on their being Moon-Goddess and Sun-God, it plays no important role in the Hymn, yet their well known association with Medeia makes it unlikely that their pairing is coincidental.
A complicating factor in understanding Hecate’s relationship with Persephone is that the latter is not a simple figure. It has often been suggested that Persephone originated as two distinct figures: Persephone, a pre-Greek Queen of the Dead, and Kore, the Greek daughter of Demeter. When Hecate appears as a companion, it is with the innocent daughter of Demeter. However, when the chthonic Hecate is evoked, she is often named with, or even identified with, the Queen of the Dead. It is interesting to note that the first part of Persephone’s name resembles Perseis, a name sometimes associated with Hecate, as daughter of Perses. If Persephone and Kore were originally two separate deities, then perhaps their merging transformed whatever original relationship one or both had with Hecate.
Hecate often had the title Phosphoros which means light bringer.
Hecate and Artemis
Hecate has been associated many times with Artemis and Apollo, as She is their cousin. Her cousin Apollo had the title Hekatos, as early as Homer, and Artemis took Hekate as a title, at least by the end of the fifth century.
In Classical and later literature, Hecate is closely connected with Artemis. They share several titles, attributes and functions and appear to be considered identical in many instances.
A different sort of connection between Hecate and Artemis is revealed in a number of similar legends concerning girls or young women who die either by being sacrificed or by taking their own lives often in order to ensure the safety of their people. One legend, which is the earliest surviving case concerns Iphigeneia (sometimes called Iphianassa, Phimede, or Iphimedeia) and her stepfather, Agamemnon, the latter of which is counselled to sacrifice his stepdaughter to Artemis in order to ensure the safety of the Greek fleet when it sailed for Troy from Aulis in Boiotia. At the moment of death, Artemis replaces Iphigeneia with a deer (or a bear), taking her far away and transforming her into a Priestess or a divine attendant and calling her Hecate. Another story, however, is that Artemis tranforms Iphimedia into an attendant named Artemis Enodia. The titles Hekaerge (far-working) and Hekatebolos (far-shooting) which so clearly resemble Hekate’s name, are often added to Artemis’ name to indicate her belligerent and destructive roles.
Hecate’s functions may have changed as the result of political manipulation. You had mergers where treasury of the league was moved to the Acroipolis from Delos, where Artemis was prominent. For the most part, Hecate would seem to have been the loser in such a merger: she did not seem to acquire any functions normally reserved for Artemis, such as archery or governing wilderness, while Artemis’ name joined Hecate’s at Eleusis. Perhaps this dominance by Artemis is why Hecate’s chthonic role became so pronounced in the literature of Athens in the fifth and later centuries: She may have lost most of Her other functions to Artemis. However, Hecate preserved at least a moderate level of independence to the end of antiquity.
Hecate is connected with the feminine in independence from the masculine. While both Artemis and Hecate are evoked in childbirth, this is in the sense of helping with an exclusively feminine mystery, unlike the Goddess Hera, Zeus’ wife, who is guardian of the relationship of woman to man. Thus Hera is the jealous guardian of marital fidelity, the protectress of the marriage vows. She is the Goddess of childbirth, not as a feminine ritual but as the result of male-female connection as it relates to the preservation and integrity of the blood line and inheritance.
The Artemis-Hecate archetype was rather feared by the patriarchs of the Solar Gods, because if pursued by women, it could have led to their developing a sense of an independence from the masculine. Thus the cult of Hera, under the protection of Zeus, became very important in late classical times.
The Greek Artemis should not be confused with Artemis of Ephesus who was the Great Mother Goddess of the Ionian Greeks. The Greek soul was in later patriarchal times, unhappy with the independent Artemis who is the wild virgin of the hunt and only by remaining aloof from contact with the masculine can She retain Her independence. So the Greeks encouraged the grafting onto Her of the Artemis of the Ephesus-Mother facet.
Hecate’s connection with Apollo is the most interesting than She has with any other Gods. The most striking connection between Apollo and Hecate is through two of his common titles that resemble Her name: Hecatos and Hekatebolos. One way of interpreting this set of names is possibly that Hecate and Apollo were originally paired and that Artemis came to replace Hecate. Even though Homer and Hesiod have Artemis and Apollo as close siblings, there are many sites where they are worshipped by themselves. Apollo took on an equal status with Artemis on Delos only in the sixth century, while Artemis never joined him in Delphi which is strange. ! However, Hekate’s early presence with Apollo at Miletos (and later at Didyma) could be interpreted as the last signs of a partnership that originated among Bronze Age people of Asia Minor. By this thought, Artemis presumably replaced Hekate as companion of Apollo Hekatos when She began to absorb other Asian Goddesses early in the millennium.
If it were not for Apollo’s title of Hekatos, his relationship with Hekate could probably be treated as being of limited significance. However, their sharing of names can hardly be a trivial coincidence, and Hecate’s origins and identity are somehow tied to those of Artemis and Apollo. There are several speculative but quite interesting pieces of evidence that point to Hekate and Apollo having common roots in Bronze Age Aisa Minor, perhaps as paired guardian deities. However, whatever the connection, by the sixth century, any close relationship between Apollo and Hecate are limited to a few Ionian sites such as Miletos and Didyma, wherein Gods such as Helios and Hermes were more commonly her male companions.....Helios the Sun Good and Hermes being chthonic in nature.
Hecate and the Son God, Helios
There are several references in literature that show an association between Hekate and Helios. Hecate and Helios are the only witnesses to Kore’s (Persephone) kidnapping, and they inform Demeter what has happened...first by Hecate and then by Helios. It has often been assumed that this relationship reflects their complementary nature as Moon Goddess and Sun God. In every version of the legend of Persephone, Hecate and Helois are either paired as observers or are both absent. This suggests that this pairing is not coincidental, though not necessarily vital to the story. It is relevant to note that there is a common pattern found in folklore in many parts of the world of the Sun and Moon being questioned concerning events occurring on Earth, as they are assumed to be able to observe everything. Helios is explicitly called skopos, meaning "watcher" and Hecate is able to hear clearly the abduction from Her cave. Probably she "hears" because it is during the daylight hours that Kore is taken and the Moon is not out shining.
Hecate and Hermes
Hecate’s association with Hermes is the least documented in early times of those considered so far. The earliest evidence supporting a true connection with Hecate is at the entrance to the Athenian Acropolis in the fifth century which bears the three images of Hecate connected. The role as chthonic deities of which both deities received sacrificial meals left at their statutes. They were called Enodia and Enodios, meaning "in/or the road." Hermes is the only deity, besides Persephone, with whom Hekate significantly shared chthonic functions. Evidence for their shared role dates only to the fifth century, but earlier evidence exists for both independently and perhaps their association came about because they shared this function.
Hecate and Her Roles in Early Greece
"Lord Helios and the sacred flame,
weapon of Hekate Enodia
which She bears when leading in Olympos
and in her haunts by the sacred three-ways on Earth,
crowning herself with oak leaves and twisting coils of wild serpent."
Hecate is a Goddess of entrances which generally serve one or more of three functions: to establish a boundary and to protect what is inside from the outer world, to help travellers setting out from or returning to the entranceway and to watch over the actual transition that the entrance entails. Protection from what is beyond a boundary is a role that is commonly assigned to Hecate but most importantly, she is involved with unseen, spiritual foes rather than physical defense of the city such as Athena Nike.
There is another attribute of Hecate indicating a gatekeeper role: the holding of a key. In the Orphic Hymn to Hekate, she is called kleidouchos ("key-holder"). By Hellenistic times, the bearing of a key often symbolized the ability to open and close the gates between Earth and other realms such as that of the Underworld. Persephone was also shown with a key. In Hecate’s case, this could reflect her association by that time with spirits, especially those summoned by magicians, as She could let spirits in and out.
Hecate - Goddess of Women -
Hecate is considered a Goddess of Women. Birth, childbearing and death are matters of great importance to all human societies. Hecate is associated with all three. If Hecate can be considered a Goddess of Transitions, she was particularly a suitable goddess to evoke in all matters concerning birth and death. These matters are also traditionally considered the concern of women, if not their exclusive domain, so Hecate’s involvement in them may imply a particular focus upon women.
As early as Theogony, Hecate has the role of kourotrophos...child’s nurse. Hecate is the oldest known kourotrophos, as in the Theogony She is called Kourotrophos to all living things.
Ceremonies of death were largely the concern of women in ancient Greece. Women predominate in artistic and literary representations of mourning and the laying out of bodies; laws were passed governing their actions and influences of funerals. House sweepings and offerings were made to Hecate at crossroads at the Dark Moon after a 30-day mourning period.
It has also been suggested that Hecate had a role in marriage, another transitional stage of life of particular importance to women.
Scholars such as Wilamowitz and Nilsson feel justified in claiming that Hecate is a Women’s Goddess and one of the reasons for that belief is that women were more prone to be more superstitious then men and to practicing magick privately in association with Hecate. In deed, another Greek author said he wished to only provide the myths regarding Hecate, for anything which was practiced by Greek women would be considered Witchcraft!
Of the three most likely roles for Hecate when she is found at entranceways, the evidence best supports that of guardian against outside dangers. Particular emphasis may be on defending against supernatural forces, a function which may be directly tied to her frightening association with restless spirits.
Another of Hecate’s roles was Hecate Propolos which means guide and companion, and She was certainly that when accompanying Persephone to the Underworld and being her companion while there.
Most all drawings and pictures of Hecate depict her with two torches where other Goddess have only one torch. Hecate is known as Hecate Phosphoros which means Light Bringer. Also, morning and evening stars (the planet Venus) were named Phosphoros (light bringer) and Hesperos (of the evening). So, perhaps her two torches were seen to represent Phosphoros and Hesperos. Her torches could also represent the light of the Moon, the fire representing childbirth.
Goddess of the Underworld
In the second half of the fifth century, there is in Greek literature a side of Hecate that is both frightening and new. She is associated with restless spirits and phantasms that attack by their own volition or under the command of spiteful foes with purification ceremonies involving the killing of dogs and with offers left at crossroads at every Dark Moon. In situations such as these Hecate is known as Hecate Chthonia.
In many parts of the world, they feel that the crossroads are supernatural places....places to work magick and to encounter spirits of all kinds. In later literature, Hecate is associated with crossroads and most particularly three-way intersections. Sacrificial meals are commonly left out at crossroads for Hecate, especially during the three days about the Dark Moon. These are sometimes called Hekates deipna (Hecate’s banquets.) Offerings are to solicit Her aid in protection against the other spirits. Many felt that restless spirits walk the earth during the Dark of the Moon. Neglecting to make offerings to Hecate is therefore dangerous not because she might attack, but because She is the one who stands between you and the dangerous spirits. Because of Hecate’s association with crossroads, she is called Hecate Enodia (in the road.)
Hecate is also associated with dogs, and dogs, as well as Hecate, are credited with excellent night vision.
Chthonic deities, in their role of governing the dead were associated with snakes. Snakes appear with Hecate almost entirely in the context of her hair.
Hecate has a significant role in the nearly obsessive portrayal of Medeia in antiquity. Medeia’s primary role is usually that of an evil magician and herbalist. She is also a Priestess of Hecate and a descendant of Helios, the Sun God; Hecate, and to a lessor extent Helios, were Medeia's benefactors or teachers. This is probably Hecate’s most noted role in later literature, and as such, contributed much to her negative image. Helios, on the other hand, has not suffered in the same way....naturally.....He being a male and Hecate being a female. It goes to show that even back then Gods practicing magick were not Witches or anything evil. However, a Goddess who is associated with magick and She gets a negative image! Literature has it that Medeia evoked Hecate and performed magick regarding women's issues and this reflects Hecate’s role, once again, as the benefactor of this magick as evidence for Her being a Woman’s Goddess. Many men would argue the point, but that still does not change that Hecate was not only a Goddess for the people but most particularly a Goddess for the women for Hecate assisted in the roles that women performed. .
The prominence of Hecate Chthonia in later literature is probably the most difficult to explain. One scholar suggests that Hecate’s chthonic side must have been present from her beginnings in Karia and was brought to the forefront in the fifth century when superstitious fears and magic practices became widespread among the common folk. Hecate’s chthonic image became enhanced at the expense of her other functions in Athens to differentiate Her from Artemis as well as Her association with other Chthonic deities such as Persephone, Queen of the Dead who many feel are one and the same.
In summary, Hecate is a Goddess for the people and most particularly women and not the entire community and was most likely honored in private ceremonies on Her own. Due to Hecate’s "unsavory" character and the magickal practices of Hecate’s followers such as Medeia are not in keeping with "proper" Greek religion, She was not idealised in ancient Greek culture. In other words....Hecate did not fit into what man thought a Goddess should represent. This is probably why She was never considered an Olympian Goddess. The relatively sudden and widespread archeological evidence for Her worship in the sixth century indicates that Hecate came from some other outside location. The question of Hecate’s place of origin has been questioned on account of her negative reputation and a desire to keep the Greek religion clean. Nevertheless, it is a common conclusion that the worship of Hecate originated in Asia Minor, in particular Karia.
By the fifth century, when records became relatively abundant, Hecate is firmly in place in the Greek world and as a Greek Deity. That century also marks the point when the literary record begins to stress Hecate Chthonia and often in a dangerous form and unfortunately at the expense of her other functions. As mentioned earlier, the Greeks probably wanted more emphasis on Artemis and less on Hecate. Hecate Chthonia seems to have little bearing on actual religious practices but more on supporting the magickal practices of Medeia and other female figures. The negative portrayal of powerful women such as Medeia and the Amazons who live outside of the bounds of society, is most common in Greek and Roman literature. When these women are associated with Deities, it is usually with Goddesses who honor their independent nature such as Artemis, or grant them unusual powers, such as Hecate. So...it is quite possible that through simple association with Medeia, the ghostly and dangerous side of Hecate was popularized.
Another important factor contributing to the stories involving Hecate may be that much of Her worship served individual needs–protecting one from harmful ghosts and guiding one through difficult transitions and the use of magick rather than those of the community. Apparently the Greeks thought that individuals acting on their own could be very threatening to society. What is interesting in nearly all of these stories is that they feature individual women performing rituals for their own purposes. Perhaps humble, day to day ritual practices by women with statutes of Hecate in their homes added to fuel the fears and imagination of others. But the women who evoked Hecate, respected Her but did not fear Her. Hecate carried with Her independence and power.....things that Greek men did not want women to have. Many women turned to Hecate for protection, childbirth and childraising, as Hecate was called upon for many functions. Parents gave their children names that began with Hekat, sculptors were hired to construct statues of Her for all to see, and people were initiated into Her mysteries. The worship of several deities was restricted by official decree in the Roman period, but never that of the our Lady.......Lady Hecate, Queen of Heaven, Earth and the Underworld...a privileged with which She was given but what She already had before the Olympian Gods.
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